A2L (flammable) R32 Refrigerant (1)

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Section 1

Why flammable refrigerants?

What is Refrigerant?

Who introduced A2L Flammable R32?

Is A2L class R32 safe and is it legal?

Did you know?


Section 2

Legislation & Guidelines

Regulations, Obligations

Advisory documents by industry Associations

Guidelines, Recommendations

Protocols & Progress


 Why flammable refrigerants?

Do you know :


What is Refrigerant? Which Standards Apply?

Refrigerants are chemicals with unique thermodynamic properties advantages, have very low boiling temperatures, and can carry 10 times more energy per weight than water and 50 times more than air. Refrigerants are main energy transfer media in any DX (Direct Expansion) Cycle that exists in Heat Pump, Air Conditioig system or Refrigeration system. (click hear to learn more about DX Cycle)

There are two classifications needs to be taken into account in the event of an accidental leak:

Flammability: There are THREE Flammability classifications (A1-non-flammable, A2/A2L-flammable, A3-Highly flammable) accordance with ISO 817:2014 (E) & ASHRAE Standard 34 International Standards. R410A is A1, R32 is A2L

Toxicity: There are THREE Toxicity safety limits according to BSEN 378-1 (ISO 5149-1) that relates to the displacement of Oxygen in occupied spaces in the event of refrigerant leak,  B1 (Lo), B2 (Med), B3 (Hi).
Example, R410A is B1 0.44 kg/m3, while R32 is B2 0.3 kg/m3. That means that R32 (B2) minimum allowable limit in the event of a leak is 3.33 m3 , while R410A is 2.27 m3 which is 68% better than R32 area requirement.


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Who Introduced A2L Flammable R32 as a single component and why?

Who - Daikin Industries manufacturers of AC equipment & Chemicals 1st introduced flammable refrigerant A2L class R32 as a single component in Japan in 2012 and 2015 in Europe and registered 300+  patents regarding R32, Daikin licenced the Patents to other manufacturers  Business Cartel (such as Mitsubishi, Panasonic, LG, Samsung etc) and  forcing them to stop supply R410A non-flammable charged small splits (less than 3 kg charge) in the UK, well before EU supply ban (>750 GWP) on 1st January 2025!Without a CHOICE

A2L class flammable R32 is a low GWP (if leaked) & a TEMPORARY short term substitute for HFC R410A A1 class non-flammable Hi-GWP (if leaked) Refrigerant for small splits with up to 3 kg system charge ONLY.. 

Why - Daikin introduced A2L class R32 as a single component? 
They falsely argue that it has Low GWP if leaked!, but, intentionally avoiding to mention the possible consequences of being flammable, when leaked?.

False claim:  According to Daikin Chemicals page 12  "under Japan‘s High Pressure Gas Safety Act, it is not classified as a flammable gas?" (It does not however states it is non-flammable?!) challenging ISO 817 & ASHRAE 34, International Standards. 

FACTS: (click on images for more)

UL Test Report 2021 highlights extra precautions required by the fire authority:


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Is A2L class flammable R32 safe? and is it legal?

Duties, responsibilities and obligations when dealing/handling or specifying  A2L class flammable refrigerants

a) Manufacturer, Importer, Distributor legal OBLIGATIONS
    (Must get confirmation in writing)




b) Extra Engineer Safety qualifications 

in addition to C&G 2708 or F-gas certification, handling A2/A2L class (flammable) & A3 class (highly flammable) refrigerants requires  (Note: F-Gas Certification has nothing to do with F-Gas Regulations)

c) Extra Installation Safety 

Materials and costs of components required for A2L class Flammable
(ventilation, alarms, pipe protection electrical installation and location of equipment)

To meet manufacturers installation recommendation which are not mentioned at point of sale!!


d) Extra End Users awareness

End Users MUST be clearly Informed of EXTRA precautionery requirements, risks and restrictions of use as indicated in the User Manual (examples below are of various major manufacturers).



It is the Specifier and Installer's responsibility to ensure compliance. Do not accept manufacturers Greenwashing statements.


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Do you also know?


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Space Air® say: It is a shame that A2L R32 is being forced on the UK and some EU countries by a manufacturer, Space Air promoted for 36 years as the true innovator and leader. Unfortunatly Daikin Industries under their chairman Mr. Noriyuki Inoue and their Belguim subsidiary financial director, deceptivley (I should say ill advised by accountants at DENV Europe) introduced R32 as a single component in Japan in 2012 & in EU in 2015.

Q : Can you drop R410A refrigerant into an R32 designed cycle? A: YES, due to

(click on any image for more details)


"Life, in any form, is more important than commercial deception and false claims"

See more by clicking on images


*Greenwashing is a deceptive form of marketing that claims a company's products, policies and goals are environmentally friendly and therefore do less damage to nature, with an underlying purpose to increase profits

*1 Public Buildings means any building having free entrance or permissible for entry to the common masses then that building will be called public buildings e.g. Offices, Restaurants, apartments, shops, Hospitals, Hotels, Supermarkets, Sports centres and Care homes.

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